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Describe why small and large DNA viruses have evolved varied mechanisms for mRNA production and replication Answer

Describe why small and large DNA viruses have evolved varied mechanisms for mRNA production and replication.

There could be observed a significant difference between the genomic size as well as diversity of small and large viruses. According to researchers, large viruses might have been evolved because of (i) gene duplications, (ii) tangential cellular genetic transfers, and (iii) accumulation of various transposons. They further present rationale that well- timed duplication of such a multifaceted genome can become possible only with the assistance of multiple origins of replication. To understand it clearly, we might take example of human genome which replicates in a quick manner owing to presence of numerous origins of replication otherwise; it cannot prove to be competent in terms of fulfillment of our needs.

In the same way, large viruses may require more advanced mechanisms for transcription as well as translation because of their complex life cycles. In fact, due to their specific needs (for example; to control host’s cellular machinery in a temporal manner), they might require considerably variable (in terms of quantity as well as quality) populations of m-RNA and protein molecules. These biomolecules may not be produced and regulated with the aid of simple machinery (for instance; which is present in small viruses) as; there might be needed a complex array of reactions to perform such tasks. The reason behind presence of diverse mechanisms for replication and transcription in small and large viruses can also be understood by considering the role of selection pressure which usually induces biological entities to get evolved via presenting such circumstances that might be termed favorable for this type of transformations.

Because of such induction and further selection by nature, large viruses can be called more potent than small ones and complexity of their genome as well as expression mechanisms may be credited for their host adaptation, pathogenesis and resistance abilities.

 

 

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Given the following information about a product, at Phyllis Simon’s firm, what is the appropriate setup time Answer

Given the following information about a product, at Phyllis Simon’s firm, what is the appropriate setup time?

 

 

Ans:

 

D= Annual Demand = 39000

d = Daily demand = 150 Units

p = Daily production Rate = 1000 units

Q = EOQ Desired = 150 Units

H = Holding Cost = $ 10

S = Set Up Cost =   [(150 ) ^ 2 * 10 * ( 1- 150/1000) ] / ( 2* 39000)

S=   22500 * 10 * (17/20) / (2* 39000)

S = 11250 * 17 / ( 2* 39000) = $ 2.451923

Setup Time = $ 2.45 /( hourly Labor Rate)

Set Up Time = 2.45 /40 = 0.06129 hours   = 3.6778 ~ 3.7 minutes

 

 

 

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Compare and contrast a wealth tax and an income tax. Evaluate how the differences between these two taxes might impact individual behavior Answer

Wealth and Taxation Please respond to the following:

  • Compare and contrast a wealth tax and an income tax. Evaluate how the differences between these two taxes might impact individual behavior.
  • Compare and contrast the following: property taxes, land taxes, and property transfer taxes. Choose the one type that impacts individual life the most. Provide an example to support your choice.
  • Compare and contrast a wealth tax and an income tax. Evaluate how the differences between these two taxes might impact individual behavior.

 

Ans: The income tax is based on current earnings in a year, while a wealth tax is based on the accumulated value of income that is saved and invested in real property and other taxable assets. The wealth tax has a lower and less direct impact on labor choices than the income tax because the tax can be avoided by shifting consumption patterns. The wealth tax is less comprehensive than the income tax because wealth is harder to assess and is generally focused on a few specific areas, such as property. This creates shifts away from these types of investment.

Property taxes are levied on the value of property, which generally increases as it is developed, where as land taxes are based on the land regardless of how it is developed. Property taxes can discourage development of land and shift the distribution of what land is developed. Transfer taxes tax more things than either land or property (they include transfers of land and property as well as other forms of wealth), but are only placed on those inheriting the wealth and are collected once.

Wealth is a stock, because it refers to the value of the assets an individual has accumulated as of a given time. Wealth taxes help to correct certain inevitable problems that arise in the administration of an income tax. All capital gains, realized or not, belong in the tax base of a comprehensive income tax. In practice, it is often impossible to tax unrealized capital gains. By taxing the wealth of which these gains become a part, perhaps this situation can be remedied. Now, it is true that wealth at a given point in time includes the sum of capital gains and losses from all earlier years. However, there is no reason to believe that the yield from an annual wealth tax approximates the revenues that would have been generated by full annual taxation of unrealized capital gains. The higher an individual’s wealth, the greater his or her ability to pay, other things including income being the same. Therefore, wealthy individuals should pay higher taxes. Wealth taxation reduces the concentration of wealth, which is desirable socially and politically. Most important wealth tax in the United States is the property tax. A wealth tax is based on the total value of all assets, including home ownership; cash, bank deposits, money funds, and savings in insurance and pension plans; investment in real estate and unincorporated businesses; and corporate stock, financial securities, and personal trusts. A wealth tax is a tax on capital and land at a flat rate. The difference with income tax is that it is a tax on the flow of assets (a change in stock) and a wealth tax is imposed on the accrued purchasing power of stock. People who are wealthy have an ability to invest which increases their future purchasing power and can offset some of the taxes. People who are taxed based on income have fewer saving and cannot invest as much as a wealthier person can.

References:

Harvey S. Rosen. (2004). Public Finance, 7th Edition. The McGraw-Hill Companies.

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Are bacteria large or small organisms compared to eukaryotic cells? Explain your answer

Are bacteria large or small organisms compared to eukaryotic cells? Explain your answer.
Answer:

Bacteria is a prokaryote and its smaller than a eukaryotic cell. Eukaryotic cell is more developed than prokaryotic cell from an evolutionary standpoint. It has more DNA and genes, larger and more complex. It contains more cell organelles which makes it larger .

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Coyle Company manufactured 6,000 units of a component part that is used in its product and incurred the following costs Answer

1. In the month of September, Nixon Company sold 800 units of product. The average sales price was $30. During the month, fixed costs were $7,200 and variable costs were 60% of sales. (25 points)

(a)Determine the contribution margin in dollars, per unit, and as a ratio.
(b)Using the contribution margin technique, compute the break-even point in dollars and in units.

2. It takes 3 pounds of direct materials to produce the Regular product and 5 pounds of direct materials to produce the Deluxe product. It is the company’s policy to maintain an inventory of direct materials on hand at the end of each month equal to 30% of the next month’s production needs for the Regular product and 20% of the next month’s production needs for the Deluxe product. Direct materials inventory on hand at June 30 were 9,000 pounds for the Regular product and 15,000 pounds for the Deluxe product. The cost per pound of materials is $5 Regular and $7 Deluxe. (25 points)

Instructions
Prepare separate direct materials budgets for each product for the third quarter of 2010.

3. Coyle Company manufactured 6,000 units of a component part that is used in its product and incurred the following costs: (25 points)

Direct materials$35,000
Direct labor15,000
Variable manufacturing overhead10,000
Fixed manufacturing overhead 20,000
$80,000

Another company has offered to sell the same component part to the company for $12 per unit. The fixed manufacturing overhead consists mainly of depreciation on the equipment used to manufacture the part and would not be reduced if the component part was purchased from the outside firm. If the component part is purchased from the outside firm, Coyle Company has the opportunity to use the factory equipment to produce another product which is estimated to have a contribution margin of $14,000.

Instructions
Prepare an incremental analysis report for Coyle Company which can serve as informational input into this make or buy decision.

4. Mercer has three product lines in its retail stores: books, videos, and music. Results of the fourth quarter are presented below: (25 points)
Books Music Videos Total
Units sold 1,000 2,000 2,000 5,000
Revenue $22,000 $40,000 $23,000 $85,000
Variable Dept costs 17,000 22,000 12,000 51,000
Direct fixed costs 1,000 3,000 2,000 6,000
Allocated fixed costs 7,000 7,000 7,000 21,000
Net income (loss) $ (3,000) $ 8,000 $2,000 $ 7,000

The allocated fixed costs are unavoidable. Demand of individual products are not affected by changes in other product lines.

Instructions
What will happen to profits if Mercer discontinues the Books product line?

5. Martinez Company has money available for investment and is considering two projects each costing $70,000. Each project has a useful life of 3 years and no salvage value. The investment cash flows follow:
Project A Project B
Year 1$ 8,000$28,000
Year 224,00028,000
Year 352,00028,000

Instructions
If 8% is an acceptable earnings rate, which project should be selected? Justify your response. (25 points)

 

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Selected transactions completed by Equinix Products Inc. during the fiscal year ending December 31, 2012, were as follows Answer

Comprehensive Problem 4
Part 1:
Selected transactions completed by Equinix Products Inc. during the fiscal year ending December 31, 2012, were as follows:
1. Journalize the selected transactions.
If no entry is required, select “No Entry Required” from the dropdown and leave the amount boxes blank. For a compound transaction, if an amount box does not require an entry, leave it blank.
a. Issued 12,500 shares of $25 par common stock at $32, receiving cash.
b. Issued 2,000 shares of $100 par preferred 5% stock at $105, receiving cash.
c. Issued $400,000 of 10-year, 6% bonds at 105, with interest payable semiannually.
d. Declared a quarterly dividend of $0.45 per share on common stock and $1.25 per share on preferred stock. On the date of record, 85,000 shares of common stock were outstanding, no treasury shares were held, and 17,000 shares of preferred stock were outstanding.
e. Paid the cash dividends declared in (d).
f. Purchased 5,500 shares of Kress Corp. at $22 per share, plus a $275 brokerage commission. The investment is classified as an available-for-sale investment.
g. Purchased 6,500 shares of treasury common stock at $35 per share.
h. Purchased 36,000 shares of Lifecare Co. stock directly from the founders for $18 per share. Lifecare has 112,500 shares issued and outstanding. Everyday Products Inc. treated the investment as an equity method investment.
i. Declared a 2% stock dividend on common stock and a $1.25 quarterly cash dividend per share on preferred stock. On the date of declaration, the market value of the common stock was $40 per share. On the date of record, 85,000 shares of common stock had been issued, 6,500 shares of treasury common stock were held, and 17,000 shares of preferred stock had been issued.
j. Issued the stock certificates for the stock dividends declared in (h) and paid the cash dividends to the preferred stockholders.
k. Received $24,500 dividend from Lifecare Co. investment in (h).

l. Purchased $62,000 of Nordic Wear Inc. 10-year, 6% bonds, directly from the issuing company at par value, plus accrued interest of $550. The bonds are classifed as a held-to-maturity long-term investment.
m. Sold, at $42 per share, 2,600 shares of treasury common stock purchased in (g).
n. Received a dividend of $0.65 per share from the Kress Corp. investment in (f).
o. Sold 500 shares of Kress Corp. at $26.50, including commission.
p. Recorded the payment of semiannual interest on the bonds issued in (c) and the amortization of the premium for six months. The amortization was determined using the straight-line method.
q. Accrued interest for three months on the Nordic Wear Inc. bonds purchased in (l).
r. Lifecare Co. recorded total earnings of $205,000. Everyday Products recorded equity earnings for its share of Lifecare Co. net income.
s. The fair value for Kress Corp. stock was $18.50 per share on December 31, 2012. The investment is adjusted to fair value using a valuation allowance account. Assume Valuation Allowance for Available-for-Sale Investments had a beginning balance of zero.

Comprehensive Problem 4
Part 2:
Note: You must complete part 1 before part 2.
After all of the transactions for the year ended December 31, 2012, had been posted [including the transactions recorded in part (1) and all adjusting entries], the data below were taken from the records of Everyday Products Inc.
On your own paper, in the working papers, or using a spreadsheet, prepare the following:
a. Prepare a multiple-step income statement for the year ended December 31, 2012, concluding with earnings per share. In computing earnings per share, assume that the average number of common shares outstanding was 84,000 and preferred dividends were $85,000. (Round earnings per share to the nearest cent.) Save your calculations and enter the requested amounts below.
b. Prepare a retained earnings statement for the year ended December 31, 2012. Save your calculations and enter the requested amounts below.
c. Prepare a balance sheet in report form as of December 31, 2012. Save your calculations and enter the requested amounts below.

If required, only use the minus sign to indicate net loss before income tax, net loss, or a deficit balance in retained earnings.
Gross profit $
Total Selling expenses $
Total Administrative expenses $
Total operating expenses $
Income from operations $
Net Other expenses and income $
Income tax $
Net income $
Earnings per common share (rounded to the nearest cent) $
Retained earnings, January 1, 2012 $
Total current assets $
Investment in Nordic Wear Inc. bonds $
Total property, plant, and equipment $
Total assets $
Total current liabilities $
Net Long-term liabilities $
Total liabilities $
Total Paid-in capital Preferred 5% stock $
Total Paid-in capital Common stock, $25 par $
Total paid-in capital $
Retained earnings, December 31, 2012 $
Total stockholders’ equity $

P.S. Some of the data in the solution/Tutorial may vary from the question listed above. The questions vary all the times. Please treat this as a solution guide only and develop your own solution.

 

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After successfully completing your goals, the organization promotes you to lead a larger team with members of different backgrounds and ability Answer

After successfully completing your goals, the organization promotes you to lead a larger team with members of different backgrounds and ability. Recognizing that this is your first experience with such a team, the organization assigns a veteran as your coach. At your first meeting with the coach, he suggests you learn all about the Path-Goal Leadership Model. Explain this model and how it is relevant to managing a diverse team.

 

Ans: The path-goal leadership model is used to select the leadership style such as directive, supportive, participative, or achievement-oriented appropriate to the situation i.e. subordinate and environment to maximize both performance and job satisfaction. The leader is responsible for increasing followers’ motivation to attain personal and organizational goals. Motivation is increased by clarifying the follower’s path to the rewards that are available, or increasing the rewards that the follower values and desires. Path clarification means that the leader works with followers to help them identify and learn the behaviors that will lead to successful task accomplishment and organizational rewards. The path-goal model is used to determine employee objectives and to clarify how to achieve them using one of four leadership styles. It focuses on how leaders influence employees’ perceptions of their goals and the paths they follow toward goal attainment. The situational factors are used to determine the leadership style that affects goal achievement through performance and satisfaction.

Situational Factors – Subordinate

Subordinate situational characteristics follow:

  1. Authoritarianism is the degree to which employees defer to others, and want to be told what to do and how to do the job.
  2. Locus of control is the extent to which employees believe they control goal achievement or if goal achievement is controlled by others.
  3. Ability is the extent of the employees’ ability to perform tasks to achieve goals.

Environment situational factors follow:

  1. Task structure is the extent of repetitiveness of the job.
  2. Formal authority is the extent of the leader’s position power.
  3. Work group is the extent to which coworkers contribute to job satisfaction or the relationship between followers.

Based on the situational factors in the path-goal model, the leader can select the most appropriate leadership style such as directive, supportive, participative, or achievement-oriented.

Directive – the leader provides high structure. Directive leadership is appropriate when the followers want authority leadership, have external locus of control, and the follower ability is low.

Supportive – The leader provides high consideration. Supportive leadership is appropriate when the followers do not want autocratic leadership, have internal locus of control, and follower ability is high.

Participative – The leader includes employee input into decision making. Participative leadership is appropriate when followers want to be involved, have internal locus of control, and follower ability is high; when the environmental task is complex, authority is either strong or weak, and job satisfaction from coworkers is either high or low.

Achievement-Oriented – Achievement-oriented leadership is appropriate when followers are open to autocratic leadership, have external locus of control, and follower ability is high; when the environmental task is simple, authority is strong, and job satisfaction from coworkers is either high or low.

In this case, I am supposed to lead a larger team with members of different backgrounds and ability. So, this is quite a diverse team wherein I would have team members can have different degrees of need for Authoritarianism, Locus of control and may have different abilities or expertise. Some of them may want to be told what to do on the job whereas some of the employees may take the complete ownership of the task or job. Similarly, some may be experienced whereas others may be just out of college and freshers. Similarly, on the Environmental factors side, the task structure may be repetitive or non-repetitive. Also, the team dynamics may require some position or the personal power to be exercised. So, depending upon each of these cases, leader or manager may have to exercise any of the leadership style such as directive, supportive, participative, or achievement-oriented as explained above. Three Subordinate situational characteristics, three Environment situational factors and four leadership styles actually make multiple combinations and leadership style would be unique for each of the followers in this diverse team. So, it makes a lot of sense to learn all about the Path-Goal Leadership Model especially for a large and diverse team.

References: Lussier, R.N., Achua. C.F. (2010). Leadership, Theory, Application, Skill Development. 4th Edition. Cengage Learning. pp 162-164

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Identify and describe validation tests and techniques used to enhance the validity of data input Answer

Different validation tests and techniques used to enhance the validity of data input are:

Class or composition Test – This validation test is done to ensure that data are of proper type (e.g., all numeric, all alphabetic, alphanumeric).
Combinations Test – This is to see that value combinations of two or more data fields are appropriate or make sense.
Expected values Test – This test is done to see whether data are what is expected e.g., match with existing customer names, payment amount, etc.
Missing data test – This is to test for existence of data items in all fields of a record.
Pictures/templates test – This is done to ensure that data conform to a standard format.
Range test – Range test is done to ensure data are within a proper range of values e.g., is an employee salary between USD 20000 and USD 200,000.
Reasonableness test – This is done to ensure data are reasonable for situation.
Self-checking digits – This technique is used in which extra digits, derived using a standard formula are added to a numeric field before transmission and checked after transmission
Size test – This tests too few or too many characters.
Values Test – This test is done to make sure values come from a set of standard values e.g., two-letter state codes.

References:
Valacich, George and Hoffer. (2011). Essential of Systems Analysis and Design. 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. pp. 253

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What are some of the different types of sampling methods that are available to the auditor Answer

What are some of the different types of sampling methods that are available to the auditor? How does the auditor decide which method to use? How will the different methods affect the audit?

 

When performing audit, the auditor has the choice to go for statistical sampling or non-statistical sampling or both of them. Both sampling methods are efficient in providing the auditor with sufficient appropriate audit evidence about the financial statements and both audit sampling methods require that the auditor practice his judgment in planning and executing his plan and come out with the results. Sampling and non-sampling risks are applicable to both sampling methods. Non-statistical sampling may be as effective as statistical sampling and vice versa (Boynton, 2006).

In statistical sampling, the auditor may choose random sampling techniques, block sampling techniques, or systematic sampling techniques which all of them are a result of the use of the laws of probability that enable the auditor to control sampling risk. On the other hand, the auditor who uses non-statistical sampling must use professional judgment, derived basically from his/her own experience, to evaluate sampling risk (Boynton, 2006).

Statistical and non-statistical sampling methods do not affect audit and the auditor is using the same framework for planning and performing whatever sample used. Also, the choice of statistical or non-statistical sampling method does not affect the evidence achieved or the auditor response to the potential errors found in sample because, at the end, the auditor is practicing his/her professional judgment while either sampling (Boynton, 2006).

 

References

Boynton, W. C., & Johnson, R. N. (2006). Modern auditing: Assurance services and the integrity of financial reporting. (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Louwers, T., Ramsay, R., Sinason, D., & Stawser, J. R.. (2007). Auditing and assurance services. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Phoenix accountant (2012) retrieved from https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/eReader.aspx