1.Which of the following statements is most accurate?

  a.  Proposals are persuasive documents used to solve problems, provide services, or sell products.
  b.  Proposals are always solicited.
  c.  Proposals are informative documents used to share problems, identify emerging issues, and categorize available resources for resolution.
  d.  Proposals are developed for external audiences only.

2. All proposals should show the value and benefits of the product or services being recommended and

  a.  include free prizes or other gimmicks.
  b.  use easy-to-understand language.
  c.  be organized indirectly.
  d.  be organized directly.

3. A business would most likely write a request for proposal to

  a.  advertise openings for two sales positions.
  b.  attract new clients.
  c.  renovate offices.
  d.  interview job candidates.

4. An effective proposal should do all of the following except

  a.  showcase the writer’s expertise and build credibility.
  b.  emphasize how the writer’s methods and products will benefit the reader.
  c.  get the reader’s attention.
  d.  analyze findings, draw conclusions, and make recommendations intended to solve a problem.

5. You can make the introduction of a proposal more persuasive if you

  a.  explain in great detail how much better you are than your competitors.
  b.  hint at the problem you will solve but avoid explaining the reasons for the proposal.
  c.  remain as vague as possible to keep the reader intrigued.
  d.  provide a “hook” such as mentioning a remarkable resource available exclusively to the writer.

6. In which part of a solicited proposal would you most likely convince your reader that you understand the problem completely?

  a.  Introduction
  b.  Background
  c.  Authorization
  d.  Budget

7. In which section of an informal proposal would you most likely include a timetable for a project to be completed?

  a.  Staffing
  b.  Authorization
  c.  Budget
  d.  Proposal

8. What should be included in the staffing section of an informal proposal?

  a.  Credentials and expertise of project leaders
  b.  List of projected costs
  c.  Copy of the RFP
  d.  Schedule or timetable of activities

9. The budget in a proposal should

  a.  reflect careful research because a proposal is a legal contract.
  b.  provide only rough estimates so that you can raise the price later if costs increase.
  c.  never itemize hours and costs, but offer only a total sum.
  d.  include a disclaimer to ensure that the budget is not legally binding.

10. Jeremy has decided to include a deadline for acceptance in his proposal to install energy-efficient workstations for a local manufacturer. In which section should Jeremy place the deadline?

  a.  Introduction
  b.  Background
  c.  Conclusion and authorization
  d.  Proposal

11. Although formal reports are similar to formal proposals, a primary difference is that

  a.  formal reports represent the end product of thorough research and data analysis.
  b.  formal reports use a more conversational tone.
  c.  formal reports are longer than formal proposals. 
  d.  formal reports are organized indirectly.

12. What is the first step in writing a formal report?

  a.  Selecting an appropriate layout and format
  b.  Researching primary and secondary data
  c.  Writing a purpose statement
  d.  Determining the length of the report

13. What is the best advice when writing a statement of purpose for a formal report?

  a.  Write a statement of purpose only for external formal reports.
  b.  Omit limitations to avoid a negative tone.
  c.  Use action verbs that tell what you intend to do.
  d.  Use vague language to allow for flexibility.

14. A work plan for a formal report should

  a.  be written after conducting primary or secondary research.
  b.  define terminology to be used in the report.
  c.  include a clear problem statement, a purpose statement, and a description of the research methods to be used.
  d.  identify the credentials of the report writer.

15. Chronological organization arranges ideas by

  a.  time.
  b.  order of importance.
  c.  physical location.
  d.  simple to complex.

16. Tanika must prepare a formal report detailing the findings of a year-long study of her company’s new wellness program. In this report she must discuss employee absenteeism before and after the program’s implementation. What type of organizational pattern will she likely use?

  a.  Chronological
  b.  Spatial
  c.  Compare/Contrast
  d.  Importance

17. Tyler is writing a report that analyzes the GlobalCom, Inc., market share of cell phone subscriptions worldwide by region. He will probably organize his report

  a.  chronologically by the date the cell phone subscriptions reached their maximums.
  b.  around extensive secondary data to assure the reader that he conducted adequate research before he wrote the report.
  c.  using a functional arrangement to show types of subscriptions globally.
  d.  geographically with sections representing each region’s market share.

18. Logan has just completed the writing of a report on e-waste generated by his company. What should he do next?

  a.  Submit the report to his supervisor.
  b.  Analyze his audience.
  c.  Edit and proofread the report.
  d.  Celebrate for completing the report.

19. Primary research data can be defined as

  a.  information that comes from reading what others have experienced and observed.
  b.  information gained from firsthand experience and observation.
  c.  statistics collected during the first stage of research.
  d.  data received from the World Wide Web.

20. Your boss asks you to write a formal report on the impact of smoking on employee healthcare costs. Like nearly every writer of a research project, you should begin your research by

  a.  reviewing secondary data in the library or on the Internet.
  b.  interviewing your colleagues to solicit their input and feelings.
  c.  preparing a questionnaire to distribute to your colleagues.
  d.  conducting a field experiment.

21. Although researchers are increasingly using electronic data, you should learn to also use print resources because

  a.  electronic sources are never considered as reliable as books and magazines.
  b.  print sources provide primary data and electronic sources provide secondary data.
  c.  some data is available only in print.
  d.  audiences respect only writers who include data from print sources.

22. What type of print resource provides excellent in-depth, historical data?

  a.  Periodicals
  b.  Bibliographic indexes
  c.  Databases
  d.  Books

23. Many researchers today begin by looking in electronic databases because

  a.  they know that all data found in electronic databases are valid and reliable.
  b.  electronic databases are always a free resource.
  c.  it is easy to cite sources found in an electronic database.
  d.  electronic databases are fast and convenient to use.

24. What is the best advice for assessing the credibility of a Web page?

  a.  Review the Web page for accuracy in facts, spelling, grammar, usage, references, and external links.
  b.  Determine the publishers or sponsors of the Web page to verify their credentials.
  c.  Evaluate the overall content of a Web page and see how it compares with other resources on the same topic.
  d.  Perform all these tasks when assessing the credibility of a Web page.

25. Which of the following is a primary data source?

  a.  Periodicals
  b.  Electronic databases
  c.  Blogs
  d.  Experimentation

26. Surveys, which are used to collect firsthand data, have many advantages. One advantage is that

  a.  those who respond to mailed or online surveys exactly represent the overall population.
  b.  respondents can be relied on to respond openly and truthfully to anonymous surveys.
  c.  data can be gathered economically and efficiently.
  d.  return rates for online and mailed surveys are typically over 90 percent.

27. Brittany is writing a business report about protecting workplace data and will be conducting an interview with a data security expert. What is the best advice you can give her?

  a.  Call before the interview to confirm the arrangements, and then arrive on time.
  b.  Learn about the individual she is interviewing, and research the background and terminology of the topic.
  c.  Use open-ended questions rather than yes-or-no questions to draw out the responses from the expert.
  d.  Brittany should complete all these steps.

28. Which of the following statements about documenting data is not accurate?

  a.  Documenting data can strengthen your argument.
  b.  Documenting data protects you from charges of plagiarism.
  c.  Documenting data is not necessary if you put the information in your own words.
  d.  Documenting data helps the reader pursue the topic further and make use of the information.

29. Plagiarism

  a.  involves using good data from reputable sources to increase your credibility and to enhance the logic of your reasoning.
  b.  happens in only academic settings.
  c.  is the act of using others’ ideas without proper documentation or by paraphrasing poorly.
  d.  occurs when writers acknowledge the sources of their researched information.

30. Which of the following statements would need to be documented in a report?

  a.  Tornadoes caused extensive loss of property and lives in Missouri.
  b.  You can get an idea of how dangerous a tornado is by its rating.
  c.  Damaging winds, common in strong tornadoes, caused problems for the residents of Missouri.
  d.  The Fujita-Pearson tornado scale rates tornadoes with wind speeds of 261 to 318 miles per hour as F5 storms.

31. Paraphrasing is

  a.  restating an original passage in your own words.
  b.  repeating the grammatical structure of the original passage.
  c.  replacing original words with appropriate synonyms.
  d.  indicating the source of the original work.

32. Which of the following is not a purpose for a direct quotation?

  a.  To duplicate exact wording before criticizing an idea
  b.  To repeat identical phrasing because of its precise wording
  c.  To add length to a researched document
  d.  To provide objective background information

33. Which of the following is the best advice about the use of direct quotations in a report?

  a.  Beware of overusing quotations because you may appear as if you have no ideas of your own.
  b.  If you use a direct quotation, don’t dilute its impact by summarizing it or introducing it in your own words.
  c.  Place the direct quotation in quotation marks, but change a few words to show you have your own ideas.
  d.  Avoid using any direct quotations in a report.

34. All of the following are tests to determine fair use except

  a.  nature of the copyrighted work.
  b.  notoriety of author.
  c.  amount of material copied.
  d.  effect of the use on the potential market.

35. To avoid charges of copyright infringement, you should

  a.  include a footnote to all information.
  b.  use information only from Internet sites.
  c.  ask permission only when using information from a legal publication.
  d.  assume that all intellectual property is copyrighted.

36. Smart writers incorporate visuals and graphics in a report because they know that visuals and graphics can

  a.  clarify data.
  b.  make complex data easy to understand.
  c.  add visual interest.
  d.  All answer choices are correct.

37. Which of the following is the most important element to consider when selecting an appropriate graphic for a report?

  a.  Your communication channel
  b.  Your word processing abilities
  c.  Your report’s organizational pattern
  d.  Your objective

38. Yolanda must include a long table in a report she is preparing on employee Internet use. What advice should she follow when creating the table?

  a.  Avoid distracting her readers with shading.
  b.  Place the table as close as possible to its text discussion.
  c.  Leave missing data blank.
  d.  Because the emphasis is on the data, avoid the use of headings for each row.

39. What type of graphic illustrates changes in data over time?

  a.  Line chart
  b.  Flowchart
  c.  Pie chart
  d.  Table

40. The major advantage of line charts is that they

  a.  compare related items.
  b.  present large amounts of data.
  c.  show the proportion of parts to a whole.
  d.  demonstrate trends.

41. Which statement about pie charts is most accurate?

  a.  Pie charts are most useful for technical audiences.
  b.  Pie charts are most appropriate for showing percentages.
  c.  Pie charts are more flexible than bar or line charts.
  d.  Pie charts can be confusing to readers because of the use of multiple colors.

42. In her letter to policyholders, Min Yi needs a graphic depicting the procedure a policyholder follows when filing a claim. Which of these would be most appropriate?

  a.  Organizational chart
  b.  Flowchart
  c.  Illustration
  d.  Table

43. Which of the following is the best advice when using graphics in reports?

  a.  Use colored graphics to add visual interest.
  b.  Don’t introduce a graphic; a good graphic should communicate clearly itself.
  c.  Avoid summarizing the main point of the graphic.
  d.  Avoid the use of headings on a graphic.

44. All of the following are front matter components of a formal report except the

  a.  letter or memo of transmittal.
  b.  list of figures or tables.
  c.  appendix.
  d.  executive summary.

45. What is the purpose of a letter or memo of transmittal?

  a.  To announce the topic of the report
  b.  To provide a list of sources used within the report
  c.  To introduce the writer of the report
  d.  To designate the parts of the report

46. What advice should you follow when preparing a table of contents?

  a.  Avoid leaders (spaced dots) on a table of contents to avoid confusing the reader.
  b.  Include only the front matter components and the main body headings and subheadings.
  c.  Center all major headings.
  d.  Title the page Contents or Table of Contents.

47. The purpose of an executive summary is to 

  a.  announce the topic of the report and tell how it was authorized.
  b.  secure funding.
  c.  present an overview of a longer report for people who may not have time to read the entire document.
  d.  show the main sections of a report.

48. What information should be included in the introduction of a formal report?

  a.  Copies of surveys
  b.  A discussion of the report findings
  c.  Conclusions and recommendations
  d.  Explanation of the problem

49. The body of a formal report should

  a.  define important and unfamiliar terms.
  b.  identify the individuals responsible for commissioning the report.
  c.  discuss, analyze, interpret, and evaluate the research findings or solution to the problem.
  d.  include a description of all secondary and primary data collected during the research phase of writing the report.

50. What is the best advice to follow when developing a bibliographic list of sources for a formal report?

  a.  Include only published sources within your bibliographic list.
  b.  Label the page “Works Cited” when using either the APA or MLA format.
  c.  List the sources in alphabetical order.
  d.  Avoid developing a bibliographic list of sources because the in-text citations will identify each source used within the report.

51. Proposals are informative documents used to educate readers.

  a.  True
  b.  False

52. All proposals should use easy-to-understand language and show the value and benefits of the product or services being recommended.

  a.  True
  b.  False

53. Proposals are always written for only external audiences. 

  a.  True
  b.  False

54. To make the introduction of your proposal persuasive, include a “hook” that focuses on the audience’s specific needs and benefits.

  a.  True
  b.  False

55. In a solicited proposal, your goal is to convince the reader that a problem exists.

  a.  True
  b.  False

56. In the proposal, plan, and schedule section of a business proposal, your goal is to explain your plan for solving the problem.

  a.  True
  b.  False

57. Proposal writers should avoid mentioning staff qualifications and credentials in a formal proposal.

  a.  True
  b.  False

58. A proposal represents a legal contract.

  a.  True
  b.  False

59. The conclusion of a proposal should remind the reader of the proposal’s key benefits and make it easy for the reader to respond.

  a.  True
  b.  False

60. Unlike a business proposal, a formal business report presents findings and recommendations based on research and data analysis.

  a.  True
  b.  False

61. The first step in preparing a report is to conduct research.

  a.  True
  b.  False

62. Writers should avoid constructing a work plan for a business report because it may become too restrictive to them and to their audience. 

  a.  True
  b.  False

63. Formal report writers conduct most of their research using primary sources. 

  a.  True
  b.  False

64. A report discussing the correct procedure to process customer complaints should be organized using a chronological order.

  a.  True
  b.  False

65. Unlike a business proposal, a formal business report does not need to be edited or proofread. 

  a.  True
  b.  False

66. Secondary data come from reading what others have published, experienced, or observed.

  a.  True
  b.  False

67. An advantage of secondary data over primary data is that secondary data are easier and cheaper to develop.

  a.  True
  b.  False

68. Books can provide historical, in-depth data.

  a.  True
  b.  False

69. A database is a collection of information stored digitally so that it is accessible by computers and mobile electronic devices. 

  a.  True
  b.  False

70. If you find information on the Web, you can be assured that it is reliable.

  a.  True
  b.  False

71. Surveys can generate primary data economically and efficiently from large groups of people. 

  a.  True
  b.  False

72. When you conduct an interview, prepare closed-ended questions to make the interviewee feel relaxed and at ease.

  a.  True
  b.  False

73. The only reason to document sources in a report is to avoid charges of plagiarism.

  a.  True
  b.  False

74. The only item that you must document in a report is a quotation of another person’s actual spoken or written words. 

  a.  True
  b.  False

75. Information that is common knowledge requires no documentation.

  a.  True
  b.  False

76. If you are worried about plagiarizing, you can avoid the problem if you use the grammatical structure of the original and just replace words with synonyms.

  a.  True
  b.  False

77. Direct quotations are often useful to provide objective data and to establish the severity of a problem as seen by experts. 

  a.  True
  b.  False

78. You should assume that all intellectual property is copyrighted.

  a.  True
  b.  False

79. Avoid the use of graphics in a report because graphics usually confuse readers.

  a.  True
  b.  False

80. Probably the most frequently used visual aid in reports is the table.

  a.  True
  b.  False

81. The major advantage of line charts is that they show changes over time, thus indicating trends.

  a.  True
  b.  False

82. Pie charts are an effective visual to demonstrate a procedure.

  a.  True
  b.  False

83. Avoid referencing graphics in the text of your report; the visual should speak for itself.

  a.  True
  b.  False

84. Report graphics should include a caption or title. 

  a.  True
  b.  False

85. The front matter of a formal report refers to the preliminary sections before the body section.

  a.  True
  b.  False

86. If included with a report, a letter or memo of transmittal should be written using the indirect strategy.

  a.  True
  b.  False

87. The purpose of a table of contents is to present an overview of the report for people who may not have time to read the entire report.

  a.  True
  b.  False

88. The introduction should be the principal section of a formal report.  

  a.  True
  b.  False

89. The most important section of a report to a reader is the conclusions and recommendations. 

  a.  True
  b.  False

90. Regardless of the documentation format used, sources should be alphabetized in the bibliographic section of a report.

  a.  True
  b.  False

91. A(n)  ____________________ is a written offer to solve problems, provide services, or sell products.

92. When government organizations or businesses have a specific need, they prepare a(n) ____________________, a document that specifies their requirements and solicits competitive bids from vendors.

93. A formal ____________________ is a document that analyzes findings, draws conclusions, and makes recommendations intended to solve a problem.

94. The planning of every report begins with a statement of ____________________ that describes the goal, significance, and limitations of a formal report.

95. The gathering of information is called ____________________.

96. A(n) ____________________ is a collection of information stored digitally so that it is accessible by computers and mobile electronic devices.

97. Using the ideas of someone else without giving credit is called ____________________ and is unethical.

98. ____________________ involves restating an original passage in your own words and in your own style.

99. Commonly shared in online environments, a(n) ___________________ is a type of visual aid that combines images and graphic elements to present complex information in a format that is easy to understand.

100. A(n) ____________________ presents an overview of a longer report for people who may not have time read the entire report.

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