1. Question : What is the final stage of the infectious process? Colonization Invasion Multiplication Spread

Question 2. Question : Where in the respiratory tract do the majority of foreign objects aspirated by children finally lodge?


           Left lung



Question 3. Question : What is the primary cause of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn?

           Immature immune system

           Small alveoli

           Surfactant deficiency


Question 4. Question : Which statement concerning benign tumors is true?

           The resulting pain is severe.

           Benign tumors are not encapsulated.

           Benign tumors are fast growing.

           The cells are well-differentiated.

Question 5. Question : Which compensatory mechanism is spontaneously used by children diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot to relieve hypoxic spells?

           Lying on their left side

           Performing the Valsalva maneuver



Question 6. Question : Which cytokines initiate the production of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)?

           IL–1 and IL-6

           IL-2 and TNF-

           IFN and IL-12

           TNF-ß and IL-4

Question 7. Question : Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can occur if the mother:

           Is Rh-positive and the fetus is Rh-negative

           Is Rh-negative and the fetus is Rh-positive

           Has type A blood and the fetus has type O

           Has type AB blood and the fetus has type B

Question 8. Question : Decreased lung compliance means that the lungs are demonstrating which characteristic?

           Difficult deflation

           Easy inflation


           Inability to diffuse oxygen

Question 9. Question : Which statement concerning exotoxins is true?

           Exotoxins are contained in cell walls of gram-negative bacteria.

           Exotoxins are released during the lysis of bacteria.

           Exotoxins are able to initiate the complement and coagulation cascades.
           Exotoxins are released during bacterial growth.

Question 10. Question : What is the ratio of coronary capillaries to cardiac muscle cells?

           1:1 (one capillary per one muscle cell)

           1:2 (one  capillary per two muscle cells)

           1:4 (one  capillary per four muscle cells)

           1:10 (one  capillary per ten muscle cells)

Question 11. Question : How high does the plasma glucose have to be before the threshold for glucose is achieved?

           126 mg/dl

           150 mg/dl

           180 mg/dl

           200 mg/dl

Question 12. Question : What is the chief predisposing factor for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn?

           Low birth weight

           Alcohol consumption during pregnancy

           Premature birth

           Smoking during pregnancy

Question 13. Question : Perceived stress elicits an emotional, anticipatory response that begins where?

           Prefrontal cortex

           Anterior pituitary

           Limbic system


Question 14. Question : Causes of hyperkalemia include:

           Hyperparathyroidism and malnutrition

           Vomiting and diarrhea

           Renal failure and Addison disease

           Hyperaldosteronism and Cushing disease

Question 15. Question : Between which months of age does sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) most often occur?

           0 and 1

           2 and 4

           5 and 6

           6 and 7

Question 16. Question : What is the fundamental physiologic manifestation of anemia?





Question 17. Question : What is the life span of platelets (in days)?





Question 18. Question : What part of the kidney controls renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, and renin secretion?

           Macula densa

           Visceral epithelium

           Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)

           Filtration slits

Question 19. Question : An infant has a loud, harsh, holosystolic murmur and systolic thrill that can be detected at the left lower sternal border that radiates to the neck. These clinical findings are consistent with which congenital heart defect?

           Atrial septal defect (ASD)

           Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

           Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

           Atrioventricular canal (AVC) defect

Question 20. Question : The coronary ostia are located in the:

           Left ventricle

           Aortic valve

           Coronary sinus


Question 21. Question : The only surface inside the nephron where cells are covered with microvilli to increase the reabsorptive surface area is called the:

           Proximal convoluted tubules

           Distal tubules

           Ascending loop of Henle

           Descending loop of Henle

Question 22. Question : The drug heparin acts in hemostasis by which processes?

           Inhibiting thrombin and antithrombin III (AT-III)

           Preventing the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin

           Shortening the fibrin strands to retract the blood clot

           Degrading the fibrin within blood clots

Question 23. Question : Which immunoglobulin (Ig) is present in childhood asthma?





Question 24. Question : Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is associated with which type of hypersensitivity reaction?





Question 25. Question : Which organ is stimulated during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)?

           Adrenal cortex


           Anterior pituitary

           Limbic system

Question 26. Question : Which congenital heart defects occur in trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and Down syndrome?

           Coarctation of the aorta (COA) and pulmonary stenosis (PS)

           Tetralogy of Fallot and persistent truncus arteriosus

           Atrial septal defect (ASD) and dextrocardia

           Ventricular septal defect (VSD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

Question 27. Question : What substance stimulates renal hydroxylation in the process of producing vitamin D?


           Thyroid hormone


           Parathyroid hormone

Question 28. Question : Which term is used to identify the movement of gas and air into and out of the lungs?





Question 29. Question : Where are antibodies produced?

           Helper T lymphocytes

           Thymus gland

           Plasma cells

           Bone marrow

Question 30. Question : What is the most common cause of insufficient erythropoiesis in children?

           Folic acid deficiency

           Iron deficiency

           Hemoglobin abnormality

           Erythrocyte abnormality

Question 31. Question : In a normal, nonmutant state, an oncogene is referred to as a:

           Basal cell

           Target cell

           Caretaker gene


Question 32. Question : Which manifestations of vasoocclusive crisis are associated with sickle cell disease (SCD) in infants?

           Atelectasis and pneumonia

           Edema of the hands and feet

           Stasis ulcers of the hands, ankles, and feet

           Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly

Question 33. Question : What is the life span of an erythrocyte (in days)?

           20 to 30

           60 to 90

           100 to 120

           200 to 240

Question 34. Question : Which term is used to describe a muscle cell showing a reduced ability to form new muscle while appearing highly disorganized?





Question 35. Question : Which hepatitis virus is known to be sexually transmitted?





Question 36. Question : What is the primary problem resulting from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn?


           Pulmonary edema


           Bronchiolar plugging

Question 37. Question : What is the action of urodilatin?

           Urodilatin causes vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles.

           It causes vasodilation of the efferent arterioles.

           Urodilatin inhibits antidiuretic hormone secretion.

           It inhibits salt and water reabsorption.

Question 38. Question : Erythrocyte life span of less than 120 days, ineffective bone marrow response to erythropoietin, and altered iron metabolism describe the pathophysiologic characteristics of which type of anemia?



           Anemia of chronic disease

           Iron deficiency

Question 39. Question : The function of the foramen ovale in a fetus allows what to occur?

           Right-to-left blood shunting

           Left-to-right blood shunting

           Blood flow from the umbilical cord

           Blood flow to the lungs

Question 40. Question : What is the most abundant class of plasma protein?



           Clotting factors

           Complement proteins

Question 41. Question : When a patient has small, vesicular lesions that last between 10 and 20 days, which sexually transmitted infection is suspected?

           Genital herpes




Question 42. Question : During an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction, which leukocyte is activated?




           T lymphocytes

Question 43. Question : What effect do natriuretic peptides have during heart failure when the heart dilates?

           Stimulates antidiuretic hormones.

           Inhibits antidiuretic hormones.

           Stimulates renin and aldosterone.

           Inhibits renin and aldosterone.

Question 44. Question : Blood vessels of the kidneys are innervated by the:

           Vagus nerve

           Sympathetic nervous system

           Somatic nervous system

           Parasympathetic nervous system


Question 45. Question : What is the first stage in the infectious process?





Question 46. Question : Which drug may be prescribed orally for outbreak management of herpes simplex viral (HSV) infections?

           Acyclovir (Zovirax)

           5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)

           Zidovudine (AZT) (Retrovir)

           Bichloroacetic acid (BCA)

Question 47. Question : What is the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia (IDA)?

           Decreased dietary intake

           Chronic blood loss

           Vitamin deficiency

           Autoimmune disease

Question 48. Question : Causes of hyperkalemia include:

           Hyperparathyroidism and malnutrition

           Vomiting and diarrhea

           Renal failure and Addison disease

           Hyperaldosteronism and Cushing disease

Question 49. Question : A person with type O blood is considered to be the universal blood donor because type O blood contains which of the following?

           No antigens

           No antibodies

           Both A and B antigens

           Both A and B antibodies

Question 50. Question : Which type of antibody is involved in type I hypersensitivity reaction?





Question 51. Question : Which cardiac chamber has the thinnest wall and why?

           The right and left atria; they are low-pressure chambers that serve as storage units and conduits for blood.
           The right and left atria; they are not directly involved in the preload, contractility, or afterload of the heart.
           The left ventricle; the mean pressure of blood coming into this ventricle is from the lung, which has a low pressure.
           The right ventricle; it pumps blood into the pulmonary capillaries, which have a lower pressure compared with the systemic circulation.

Question 52. Question : Which criterion is used to confirm a diagnosis of asthma in an 8-year-old child?

           Parental history of asthma

           Serum testing that confirms increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophil levels
           Reduced expiratory flow rates confirmed by spirometry testing

           Improvement on a trial of asthma medication

Question 53. Question : The lung is innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system via which nerve?





Question 54. Question : The generation of clonal diversity occurs primarily during which phase of life?





Question 55. Question : What is the role of collagen in the clotting process?

           Initiates the clotting cascade.

           Activates platelets.

           Stimulates fibrin.

           Deactivates fibrinogen.

Question 56. Question : What physical sign is the result of turbulent blood flow through a vessel?

           Increased blood pressure during periods of stress

           Bounding pulse felt on palpation

           Cyanosis observed on excretion

           Murmur heard on auscultation

Question 57. Question : The most common site of metastasis for a patient diagnosed with prostate cancer is which location?





Question 58. Question : What is the direct action of atrial natriuretic hormone?

           Sodium retention

           Sodium excretion

           Water retention

           Water excretion

Question 59. Question : Continuous increases in left ventricular filing pressures result in which disorder?

           Mitral regurgitation

           Mitral stenosis

           Pulmonary edema

           Jugular vein distention

Question 60. Question : Phagocytosis involves neutrophils actively attacking, engulfing, and destroying which microorganisms?





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