Different validation tests and techniques used to enhance the validity of data input are:

Class or composition Test – This validation test is done to ensure that data are of proper type (e.g., all numeric, all alphabetic, alphanumeric).
Combinations Test – This is to see that value combinations of two or more data fields are appropriate or make sense.
Expected values Test – This test is done to see whether data are what is expected e.g., match with existing customer names, payment amount, etc.
Missing data test – This is to test for existence of data items in all fields of a record.
Pictures/templates test – This is done to ensure that data conform to a standard format.
Range test – Range test is done to ensure data are within a proper range of values e.g., is an employee salary between USD 20000 and USD 200,000.
Reasonableness test – This is done to ensure data are reasonable for situation.
Self-checking digits – This technique is used in which extra digits, derived using a standard formula are added to a numeric field before transmission and checked after transmission
Size test – This tests too few or too many characters.
Values Test – This test is done to make sure values come from a set of standard values e.g., two-letter state codes.

References:
Valacich, George and Hoffer. (2011). Essential of Systems Analysis and Design. 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. pp. 253

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