Provide a brief explanation of each of the following hypotheses regarding the origin and dispersal of Homo sapiens sapiens:

Part (A) Complete Replacement

Complete Replacement theory suggests that Homo sapiens sapiens were evolved only in Africa (approximately 200,000 years ago). From Africa they migrated and travelled into other parts of world and during their journey, they replaced all Homo inhabitants to whom they encountered.

Part (B) Partial Replacement

This theory states that primary dispersal of H. sapiens sapiens from South Africa occurred because of the atmospheric conditions. During their journey into Eurasia, these modern humans could get chance of hybridization with resident groups. Because of such hybridization, resident groups were ultimately replaced. So, the vanishing of archaic humans happened   as a consequence of hybridization and replacement.

Part (C) Regional Continuity

This theory presents the idea that early Homo migrated into diverse areas of the world, and with the passage of time they evolved into Homo sapiens sapiens in a separate mode.

Explain how speciation is not a necessary part of the establishment of modern sapiens in each of the other two hypotheses.

Since; these hypotheses are based on hybridization and/ or replacement of other Homo


inhabitants by modern humans therefore; these do not present the idea of speciation.

List five different industries of the Upper Paleolithic cultures based on stone tool technologies. Prepare your list in sequence from the oldest industry to the most recent. 

In fact, cultural period in Western Europe began approximately 40,000 years ago (40 KYA). It can be understood with the example of industries of the Upper Paleolithic cultures that were based on stone tool technologies:

  Industry                      Period

  1. Chatelperronian 35-29 KYA
  2. Aurignacian 34-23 KYA
  3. Gravettian 28-22 KYA
  4. Solutrean 19-15 KYA
  5. Magdalenian 18-10 KYA


Name the two oldest industries and identify the geological age of their beginnings.

Oldowan industry (2.5 MYA) and Acheulean (1.5 MYA) industry are the oldest known industries.

Name the dominant industry of the Middle Paleolithic.

Mousterian industry was dominant in the Middle Paleolithic.

Describe the significance of the Lagar Velho skeleton.

Lagar Velho skeleton is considered 24,500 years old and it reflects characteristics of both modern humans and Neanderthals. Since; it has been dated to be no less than 4,000 years more recent compared to last known Neanderthals so; it should be the progeny of a hybrid population that persisted for thousands of years. All above facts favor the claim that Neanderthals must be a subspecies of modern humans (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis), not a separate species, Homo neanderthalensis.

Consider the technological innovations of the Upper Paleolithic that resulted in the use of new materials as well as new and specialized tools. Describe the characteristics of the Solutrean industry.

Solutrean industry can be defined as; a short-lived style of tool making which flourished approximately 17,000 to 21,000 years ago. The industry is well-known owing to its particularly fine workmanship as, this is the period in which Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) initiated formation of  novel types of tools and began to apply diverse types of substances (such as, bones) for the purpose.  These tools were like the points of hairpin. Besides, wafer-thin stone tools with leaf shaped points were also designed for the very first time by the human beings of this period. In other new inventions of Upper Paleolithic, bone sewing needles and atlatl or spear thrower (may increase the speed, force, distance and accuracy of projectiles) can also be included. In conjunction with these technological advances, came great improvements in artistic expression.

 Provide an explanation of the pressure-flaking technique

Pressure flaking technique can be described as; a retouching technique which was applied by prehistoric toolmakers for shaping of tips of implements. It is the act of implementing a pressure flaking tool (for instance; an antler) to load significant pressure against an edge and then popping off a long thinning flake. In this way, finishing touch may be provided which can result into a straight and sharp tool.

Regarding the Magdalenian industry, describe the atlatl (Figure 14-19) and explain its use and advantage.

The atlatl may be defined as; a stick with a hook on the end that can be applied for throwing a spear (dart or yaomitl, appears like an arrow).   These spear throwers are able to amplify the speed, force, distance and accuracy of spears.

Explain the punch technique and its relation to “burins” and their use.

Punch flaking is based on many steps which are raised to achieve the final product. In this technique, flakes are removed and a cylinder or cone with a flat top is created. This flat top is known as; striking surface and tool-manufacturer hits near its edge with hammer or bone tool. It results in a narrow sliver of rock; “the blade”. With the assistance of these blades, other tools such as; burins were also designed by manufacturers. Burins contain a narrow working edge which can be applied for the purpose of drawing and for cutting out pieces of bone and antler that can be used further for production of everyday items for instance; needles, fish hooks, and jewellery.


Consider the recent discovery of bone tools formed into intricately designed “harpoon-like” tools at Katanda, Africa. State the fossil dates of these tools as determined by Thermoluminescence and Electron Spin Resonance.

Researchers have applied various dating techniques such as; Thermoluminescence and Electron Spin Resonance to get an idea about the fossil dates of tools found at Katanda and according to them, these modern sophisticated tools were designed by humans before 110,000 – 80,000 years.




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