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Outline for Chapter 5

I. INTRODUCTION

   A. Complexity of Memory

   B. Memory

      1. Encoding

      2. Storage

      3. Retrieval

II. TASKS USED FOR MEASURING MEMORY

   A. Recall versus Recognition Task

       1. Recall

a. Three Main Types of Recall Tasks

i. serial recall

ii. free recall

iii. cued recall

b. Relearning

c. Expressive knowledge

       2. Recognition

           a. Receptive knowledge

   B. Implicit versus Explicit Memory Task

       1. Explicit Memory

       2. Implicit Memory

            a. Priming

            b. Procedural memory

       3. Process-Dissociation Model

   C. Intelligence and the Importance of Culture in Testing

III. MODELS OF MEMORY

   A. Traditional Models of Memory

      1. Hypothetical Constructs

      2. Sensory Store

            a. Iconic store

            b. Sperling’s discovery

      i. whole-report procedure

      ii. partial-report procedure

            c. Subsequent refinement

                  i. capacity

                  ii.backward visual masking

      3. Short-term Store

            a. Capacity

            b. Retention

      4. Long-term Store

            a. Permastore

   B. Levels of Processing Model

      1. Levels of Processing Framework

            a. Physical, phonological, & semantic

            b. Self-reference effect

      2. Criticisms

   C. An Integrative Model: Working Memory

      1. Working Memory

            a. Visuospatial sketchpad

            b. Phonological loop

            c. Central executive

            d. Episodic buffer

      2. Neuroscience and Working Memory

      3. Measuring Working Memory

      4. Intelligence and Working Memory

   D. Multiple Memory Systems

      1. Semantic Memory

      2. Episodic Memory

      3. HERA Model (Hemispheric Encoding/Retrieval Asymmetry)

      4. Declarative Memory

      5. Nondeclarative Memory

   E. Connectionist Perspective

      1. Connectionist PDP Model (Parallel Distributed Processing)

            a. Nodes

            b. Spreading activation

            c. Priming effect

            d. Parallel vs. serial processing

IV. EXCEPTIONAL MEMORY AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGY

   A. Outstanding Memory

      1. Mnemonist

      2. Hypermnesia

   B. Deficient Memory

      1. Amnesia

a. Retrograde amnesia

b. Anterograde amnesia

c. Infantile amnesia

      2. Amnesia and the Explicit-Implicit Memory Distinction

      3. Amnesia and Neuropsychology

a. Dissociations

b. Double dissociations

      4. Alzheimer’s Disease

   C. Memory Storage

      1. Hippocampus and Other Brain Structures

      2. Long-Term Potentiation

      3. Neurotransmitters

V. KEY THEMES

   A. Applied versus Basic Research

   B. Biology versus Behavioral Methods

   C. Structures versus. Processes

  • Test Bank

Multiple Choice Questions

1. A person with a large memory span is likely to do well on …

a. a reading comprehension test.

b. an intelligence test.

c. a problem solving test.

d. All of the above

Answer: d.

2. Approximately how many items can the average person hold in working memory?

a. 2

b. 4

c. 7

d. 10

Answer: c.

3. Which of the following lists of letters would you least likely be able to remember?

a. d, g, e, p, t, c, and b

b. a, b, c, d, e, f, and g

c. q, l, m, r, s, n, and y

d. h, j, u, o, w, k, and c

Answer: a.

4. According to the predictions of the memory span demonstration, for which of the following types of material should a participant have the shortest memory span?

a. digits

b. long words

c. letters that sound different

d. short words

Answer: b.

5. Memory-span is a measure of …

a. long-term memory capacity.

b. working memory capacity.

c. how long one can think about a given memory.

d. None of the above

Answer: b.

True/False Question

1. ___ According to the predictions of the memory span demonstration, one’s memory span for numbers should be longer than their memory span for letters that sound similar.

Answer: True

Short Answer Question

1. Describe the two major properties of working memory.

First, working memory has a limited capacity. It can hold about seven items at one time. Second, working memory holds information for a limited amount of time. It only holds items for a few seconds.

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